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Spiritual World => Mediumship => Topic started by: Medusa on July 18, 2009, 06:38:28 am

Title: Type of Mediumship ?
Post by: Medusa on July 18, 2009, 06:38:28 am
In spiritualism, the term Medium refers to a person with a psychic ability to produce phenomena of a mental or physical nature by "channeling" or communicating with a spiritual entity. Mediumship involves cooperative communication between a human and one or more discarnate, spirit personalities, often during a sťance. Information may be attained, paranormal activities may occur, energies may be channeled, or the spirit may manifest itself materially. Mediumship can generally be separated into two forms: Physical mediumship and mental mediumship (sometimes called "telepathic mediumship"). Trance mediumship, one of the more well known types of mediumship, often falls into the physical mediumship category. As with most paranormal phenomena, mediumship has been the subject of extreme controversy. While many alleged mediums have been revealed as frauds, there is continued, and even increasing, interest in the phenomenon and those claiming the ability, reflecting the long-standing belief that the world consists of more than that which can be known through physical senses.

History of mediumship

Human beings have attempted to contact spirits throughout most of history; shamans and witch doctors traditionally contacted spirits, and the oracles of ancient Greece were often consulted for advice; necromancy was also common. In eighteenth century Europe, Swedish scientist Emanuel Swedenborg created controversy and accusations of heresy when he rejected orthodox theology in favor of his own visions. He believed that spirits could actively help people, and that mediumship proved the existence of life after death. Swedenborg was a respected inventor and scientist, but at the age of fifty six he entered into a spiritual phase in which he experienced dreams and visions. This culminated in a spiritual awakening, and he claimed that his eyes had been opened so that from then on, he could talk freely with angels, demons, and other spirits in the afterlife.

Mediumship, however, did not gain widespread popularity until the Spiritualist Movement in the mid-nineteenth century. The birth of modern Spiritualism is often traced back to the experiences of the Fox sisters in 1848, when the two young girls claimed to have made contact with the spirit of a murdered peddler in their New York State home. The Fox sisters would regularly hold sťances, and the popularity of contacting the "other side" spread like wildfire throughout the United States and parts of Europe.

From the mid 1800s through the mid 1900s, mediums and sťances were extremely popular with the public. Notable figures like Andrew Jackson Davis, Daniel Dunglas Home, Helena Petrovna Blavatsky, and Arthur Conan Doyle helped give spiritualism a sense of authenticity, and sťances were even held in royal palaces, the White House, and the homes of highly respectable citizens. Mediums were nearly ubiquitous throughout the United States and portions of Europe.

As spiritualism grew in popularity, organizations were formed to investigate psychic phenomena like channeling. The Society for Psychical Research, for example, was founded in 1882, and attempts to investigate paranormal phenomena in a scientific and unbiased way. The Society has mainly investigated phenomena connected with telepathy and apparitions, in the hopes of finding scientific explanations for various spiritualistic occurrences.

Types of mediumship

In modern spiritualism, mediumship can be generally divided into two forms. Physical mediumship, where the medium is known as a "spirit communicator," generally involves the manipulation of energies and energy systems. Mental mediumship, where the medium is referred to as a "spirit operator," involves communication.

Mental mediumship

Mental mediumship is communication from a spirit that takes place within the medium's consciousness, without the use of any of the five physical senses. Because mental mediumship often occurs through telepathy, it is sometimes called "telepathic mediumship." The medium then relates what he/she sees, hears, or feels to the recipient, or sitter. The medium may use various states of trance to obtain this information.

Mental Mediumship comes in three main forms: Clairvoyance, Clairaudience, and Clairsentience.


Clairvoyance, or "clear seeing," is the ability to see anything which is not physically present, such as objects, animals, or people. This sight usually occurs "in the mindís eye," and some mediums say that this is their normal vision state. Others say that they must train their minds with such practices as meditation in order to achieve this ability, and that assistance from spiritual helpers is often necessary. While some clairvoyant mediums say they can see a spirit as though the spirit had a physical body and were physically present, others say that spirits appears as a movie, television program, or photograph in their mind.

The term "clairvoyance," when used in a mediumistic sense, is often used to refer to seeing spirits and visions instilled by spirits, or, more colloquially, to refer to fortune telling. This definition is different from the official definition used by parapsychologists, which defines clairvoyance as "paranormal acquisition of information concerning an object or contemporary physical event" that derives "directly from an external physical sourceÖ, and not from the mind of another person."


Clairaudience, or "clear hearing," is referred to as the ability to hear spirit voices that are not audible to other people. In some cases, mediums say they hear the spirits' voices as though a person were sitting next to them. Others claim they hear spirit voices within their head/mind as more of a thought or a verbalization of a thought. In both cases, the voices are inaudible to others, even if they are seated in close proximity to the medium. The medium may also hear music or singing, in addition to spoken thought.


Clairsentience, or "clear feeling," is said to be the most commonly experienced form of mental mediumship. Clairsentience is the ability to sense physical attributes of a spirit presence. The medium may feel the presence of a spirit through a touch, a smell, temperature change, or a slight breeze. Some mediums say that they will feel the ailments the spirit had while alive.

Additional categories of mental mediumship

While the previous three types of mental mediumship are the most common, many spiritualists break down types of mental mediumship even further, including categories such as "clairalience" ("clear smelling") and "clairgustance" ("clear tasting"). Smells and tastes of the deceased person's life or environment may be experienced through these types of mediumship. Mediums will sometimes examine a person's aura, a subtle field of luminous multicolored radiation surrounding a person or object as a cocoon or halo. By noting variations in the hues of a personís aura, a medium can describe his personality, needs, and illnesses. For example, the "shriveling" of the aura is considered a sign of impending death.

Physical mediumship

Where mental mediumship generally involves communication experienced only by the medium, physical mediumship is evident to all those around the medium. Involving the manipulation of physical systems and energies, physical mediumship can include levitation, automatic writing, the moving of tables or other objects, as well as ectoplasmic activities. Physical mediumship was an important part of the Spiritualist Movement in the late eighteenth/early nineteenth centuries, where table rapping, materializations, and object manipulation were common occurrences during sťances. Mediums would often [channel] a spirit, allowing the spirit to control their physical body to communicate to the living, a process different than possession, where control by a spirit is involuntary and generally unwelcome.

There are various manifestations of physical mediumship. Some of the more common types are:


Raps, also known as "percussion," were one of the first and most common types of physical mediumship, starting with the Fox Sisters in 1848. Raps and knocks could be heard coming from anywhere in the room, and were used to answer "yes" or "no" questions, or to acknowledge letters of the alphabet and laboriously spell out messages.


Ectoplasm is a substance taken from the medium's body and mixed with an etheric substance, which enables a spirit to affect physical matter. Ectoplasm is often light sensitive, and many sťances were held in low light or total darkness to better observe ectoplasmic manifestations.


Levitation, or the movement of objects without normal means of support, is said to occur due to either telekinesis or through the use of ectoplasm. While inanimate objects are the most common subjects of levitation, mediums have also been known to levitate. Daniel Dunglas Home, a Scottish medium, was famous during the 1800s for his feats of levitation. During one sťance, Home appeared to leave through one third story window and levitate himself outside to enter through a second window.


Sťances have often been accompanied by the materialization of spirit hands, faces, or entire bodies, particularly during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. One of the most famous materializations was that of Katie King, a spirit manifested during the sťances of a young English medium named Florence Cook. During Cook's sessions, Katie would materialize, hold conversations, and even allow herself to be photographed. While William Crookes was investigating Cook's phenomena, he was able to cut off a lock of Katie's hair.

Automatic Writing

When using automatic writing to communicate with spirits, the medium generally holds a pen or pencil and, through a lack of conscious control, allows the spirit to communicate through their hand. Ouija boards may also be used. There are a vast amount of writings that claim to be spirit-written, including plays, poetry, essays, novels, and music. While some, like a novel allegedly written by a posthumous Mark Twain, appear to have little validity, others have the potential to be genuine.

Famous Mediums

    * William Stanton Moses: Moses, a medium from the late nineteenth century, would hold sťances during which psychic lights would appear. He also had experiences of levitation, and the appearance of scents like musk and freshly mown hay. Musical sounds would often be heard with no musical instruments in the room, as well as the materialization of luminous hands and pillars of light. Moses also produced a great number of automatic writings, including his most well known scripts, Spirit Teachings (1883) and Spirit Identity (1879).

    * Fransisco (Chico) Xavier: Born in 1910, Xavier was a famous Brazilian medium, often appearing on television. He produced his first automatic writing in grade school, where he claimed that an essay was given to him by a spirit. He went on to amass an enormous number of automatic writing scripts in various scientific and literary disciplines, and is one of the world's most prolific automatic writers.

    * Edgar Cayce: Cayce was an American medium during the early twentieth century. He gave an estimated 22,000 readings during his lifetime, a large portion of which dealt with requests for advice on physical health. Cayce performed readings while in a trance state, and claimed to have no knowledge of what he had said while in a trance. He also performed a number of philosophical readings, where he discussed Atlantis, reincarnation, and made predictions for the future.

    * Daniel Dunglas Home: Home was one of the most well-known mediums of the nineteenth century. Scottish born, he performed a number of sťances for royalty and other well-respected people. He was most famous for his levitations, one of which took place outside a third story window. Though many, including Houdini accused Home of trickery, he was never once exposed as a fraud.

In more recent times, mediums like John Edward and Colin Fry have hosted television programs instead of more traditional sťances, claiming to help audience members contact deceased friends and family. Others, like Allison DuBois, use their psychic abilities to aid law enforcement in the capture of criminals. Many more modern mediums, such as Esther Hicks and Jane Roberts, have written books describing the spiritualistic material they have received during their sessions.


Title: Re: Type of Mediumship ?
Post by: Eugene66 on July 19, 2009, 02:32:21 am

What can you tell us about that?

Title: Re: Type of Mediumship ?
Post by: Medusa on July 19, 2009, 03:29:56 am

What can you tell us about that?

OOHHH Thats a good one hun...............


(knowing - clear thinking)

If you have ever had brushes with precognition--thoughts that felt as though they were inspired, strong impressions, or an inner knowingness--you may have the gift of claircognizance.

You may have received impressions and your speech may have felt fired with inspiration, you may have been compelled to create, losing all track of time, or you may have had moments when your writing seemed to be directed by a force outside of yourself.

There is a reason so many creative people are driven to create. Many artists feel a compulsion, sparked by Higher Intelligence, that is guiding and directing them.
this divine source for inspiration and guidance. If you are claircognizant, you are fortunate indeed.
Claircognizance is a window into another realm--one that is not governed by time or space. Through claircognizance humans are given glimpses into the sublime, into worlds of beauty and possibility.

We share a connection to Universal Consciousness and those possessing intuitive or psychic abilities can tap into this divine source for inspiration and guidance. If you are claircognizant, you are fortunate indeed.